Learn about the materials involved, and master both classic and contemporary paper marbling processes. Finish class by creating two sets of paper coasters that are yours to keep! This is a class that knows how to keep the fun fluid. Everyone knows how to, although not always well, paint, doodle, scribble, sketch, fingerpaint, color inside the lines, play pictionary, and use highlighters.
How about trying a new type of art, one that combines these simple techniques with textile design? This artsy class from Make invites you to create your own fabric or paper by hand, using only simple materials purchased at the local art shop. You will learn basic textile design, from creating a pattern to combining colors, by focusing only on techniques that you can use at home without special equipment. So combine those creative itches and scratch 'em by creating a unique piece of fabric all with your own two hands. Kind words from our customers.
See also : cameo binding. Synonymous with drawn-on-film animation. Also refers to painting s and other work s made from such drawings. Click here to learn more about the camera lucida, courtesy of About. Compare with camera obscura work. Synonymous with first generation and master negative. Click here to learn more about the camera obscura.
Compare with camera lucida work. Synonymous with original negative. Synonymous with camera copy. The text was usually copied first, followed by the underdrawing of decorated initial letter s and miniature s, then by gilding and painting , and finally binding. Canadiana The national bibliography of Canada, produced since by Library and Archives Canada for use in reference and research as a selection aid , to provide bibliographic information for cataloging , and as a record of the nation's published heritage.
Available online , on CD-ROM , and via FTP , Canadiana is a comprehensive list of title s published in Canada, including book s, periodical s, sound recording s, microform s, music score s, pamphlet s, government documents , theses , educational kit s, videorecording s, and electronic document s. It also provides information about forthcoming titles to facilitate advance order ing. The printed edition of Canadiana was discontinued after the December issue and the microfiche edition after December Click here to connect to the Canadiana homepage.
Click here to connect to the CASL homepage. Click here to connect to the CAPL homepage. Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild CBBAG Founded in , CBBAG is a nonprofit association of craftspeople working in the hand book arts , including papermaker s, paper decorators, bookbinder s, book restorer s, and paper conservators, both amateur and professional. CBBAG seeks to provide access to education in the book arts, promotes greater awareness of the book arts, and advocates high standards of excellence in the book arts through exhibition s, workshop s, lectures and program meetings, and publication s.
Canadian Booksellers Association CBA A nonprofit national trade association devoted to promoting the current and future interests of the bookselling industry in Canada and to meeting the needs of Canadian bookseller s. Its members include over 1, bookstore s and over publisher s across Canada. CBA publishes the trade journal Canadian Bookseller in nine issue s per year. Click here to connect to the CBA homepage. Canadian Children's Book Centre CCBC A nonprofit organization founded in to promote, support, and encourage the reading, writing, and illustration of Canadian book s for children and teens, CCBC provides resources for teachers, librarian s, students and parents, author s, illustrator s, storyteller s, publisher s, and bookseller s.
Click here to connect to the CCBC homepage. CIPO is responsible for administering patent s, trademark s, copyright s, and the legal protections for industrial designs and integrated circuit topographies. Click here to connect to the CIPO homepage. See also : U. Copyright Service , U. Canadian Library Association CLA Founded in , CLA has a membership of librarian s and other persons involved or interested in libraries , librarianship , and information science in Canada.
An affiliate of the American Library Association , CLA sponsors a national conference held at a different location in Canada each year. Click here to connect to the CLA homepage. Click here to connect to the homepage. Canadian Publishers' Council CPC Founded in , CPC is a trade association representing the interests of Canadian publisher s of English- language book s and media for schools, colleges and universities, professional and reference markets, and the retail and library sectors. Located in Toronto, CPC also represents the Canadian publishing industry internationally and maintains a liaison with the Association of American Publishers.
Click here to connect to the CPC homepage. See also : Association of Canadian Publishers. The product is expected to be the foundation of a truly international content standard. A nonserial item may be reorder ed if it is still available. Library holdings of a canceled serial title are note d in the catalog record in a closed entry. Serial cancellation s have increased in recent years, particularly in academic libraries , due to the rising cost of print subscriptions and the availability of full-text in bibliographic database s.
Compare with discontinued. See also : noncancellable. See also : expunction. The item may subsequently be reordered from the same vendor or a different source. Also refers to a person taking an examination, running for an elected office, considered for an award or degree, or destined for a particular purpose or fate. See also : short list. The subject is generally unposed and the shot unplanned, taken unobtrusively with an unhidden camera by a person immersed in an event that is often private, involving people in close relation to each other or engaged in unrehearsed activity.
Henri-Cartier Bresson is considered a master of candid photography. Some candid photographs have become iconic documents see this example. Also refers to the approved list of works included in the Bible. In the most general sense, a criterion or standard of judgment applied for the purpose of evaluation. Compare with apocryphal. See also : canonical order. Popular during the early Middle Ages, canon tables were usually given architectural treatment in manuscript decoration. Some designs include the symbol s of the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Cantos are traditionally number ed in roman numeral s.
CAO See : c hief a cademic o fficer. In , William Hancock was granted a patent for a binding method in which single leaves , produced by trimming away the back fold s of the section s, were attached directly to the cover without the use of thread by applying to the binding edge a layer of rubber solution made from the latex of various tropical plants. This form of adhesive binding did not wear well--spines cracked and page s fell out. Also called gutta percha and rubberback.
The operation is usually undertaken by two buddies or a motley gang, who together possess the diverse skills and specializations required for the enterprise, although their interpersonal relations may be less than cordial. Uncertainty of success creates suspense. Also refers to the conventions in a language with respect to words written or printed with certain letters in uppercase. For example, in English the first letter of the first word of a paragraph, and of each of the parts of a proper name , is normally capitalized.
The name is derived from the lapidary Roman letterform s incised with a chisel at the top capital of architectural columns and on other stone monuments. Also, any letter written or printed in a form larger and usually different from that of the corresponding small letter. Abbreviated cap. Synonymous with uppercase. Compare with majuscule.
See also : capitalization , cap line , rustic capital , small capital , and square capital. Compare with mean line. See also : base line. See also : scrinium.
Synonymous in this sense with cut line or legend. See also : overleaf. The cataloger usually adds Caption title: as a note in the bibliographic record to indicate its source. In a musical score , the title that appears immediately above the opening bars may be used as the caption title. Synonymous with head title. Compare with drop-down title.
Accounts by men and women of European descent, captured by Native Americans, were popular in the United States and Europe from the colonial period until the close of the frontier in the late 19th century example : A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs.
Mary Rowlandson by herself. Narrative s based on journal s written in captivity are generally less fiction alized than accounts written from memory after the event. CAR See : c omputer- a ided r etrieval. Multiple copies can be made by alternating sheets of carbon paper with regular paper, but succeeding copies become fainter because each additional layer absorbs some of the pressure.
The technique can be messy if the pigment is easily smudged. Click here to see a carbon copy of an address with holograph revision s given by Winston Churchill to the Virginia General Assembly in , courtesy of the Library of Congress. According to Richard Pearce-Moses in A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology , carbon paper was invented in England by Ralph Wedgwood in the early s and became available in the United States by the s, but was not widely adopted until the introduction of the typewriter because it did not work well with quill pen s. The use of carbon paper has been superseded by photocopying.
Abbreviated cc. Unlike the iron gall ink used in the early medieval period, which browns with age and can be so acidic that it corrodes paper and parchment , the carbon ink used in manuscript s of the late middle ages and in early printed book s is highly stable and has no destructive effect on paper or parchment.
However, it does not bond with the writing surface and is easily affected by water, which can present problems in restoration. The resulting image is transferred under pressure to a second sheet of gelatin-coated paper, then washed in water to set the gelatin, producing a permanent print with a raised surface where the image is darkest. The most commonly used pigments are carbon black and sepia , but a wide range of tint s can be used.
Because carbon prints contain no silver, they are highly resistant to fading, making them especially suitable for book illustration and commercial edition s of photographic prints. The plate can then be worked to create an image in the same way as a mezzotint see this example , courtesy of Aberystwyth University. When printed , cards may include graphic design. The category includes such ephemera as advertising cards, business card s, trade card s, collecting cards, comic cards, dance cards, greeting cards, membership cards, playing cards, postcard s, sports cards, and visiting card s.
See also : index card and catalog card. Catalog cards are normally filed in a single alphabetical sequence dictionary catalog , or in separate sections by author , title , and subject divided catalog , in the long narrow drawers of a specially designed filing cabinet, usually constructed of wood see this example. Most large- and medium-sized libraries in the United States have converted their card catalogs to machine-readable format.
Also spelled card catalogue. Compare with online catalog. The Lilly Library at Indiana University provides America in Caricature, , an online exhibition of political cartoon s. Performing Arts Caricatures at the Library of Congress. See also : caricature publication and lampoon.
Carnegie library A library facility constructed wholly or in part with grant funds provided by the American steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie , who in his later years devoted his considerable wealth to the promotion of libraries and world peace.
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Between and , over 2, Carnegie libraries were built around the world, the majority in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada. The libraries of many small towns in the United States still occupy facilities built with Carnegie funds. The buildings are typically monumental in appearance--to see examples, try a keywords search on the term "carnegie library" in Google Images.
Click here to learn more about Carnegie libraries in Wikipedia and here to see images of Carnegie libraries. Carnegie Medal A literary award presented annual ly since by the Library Association of the United Kingdom to the author of the most outstanding English- language children's book published in the UK during the preceding year.
The prize is named after the American steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie who devoted the last years of his life to the advancement of libraries and world peace. Click here to view past Carnegie Medal winners. Compare with Greenaway Medal. A festive song , generally religious but not necessarily associated with church worship. Today, the form is represented almost exclusively by the Christmas carol , a song of joy and praise once sung by groups of amateurs in streets and in homes, especially on Christmas eve see this illustration , but now heard mainly as muzak piped into retail businesses.
Caroline minuscule See : Carolingian minuscule. Carolingian minuscule The first Latin script to introduce small letter s, Carolingian minuscule may have evolved from Luxeuil minuscule , a script developed at the monastery in Corbie in France. It was adopted in the late 8th century by Alcuin of York , Abbot of St. Martin at Tours, in response to Charlemagne's desire for a standard alphabet in which book s of the Catholic Church could be copied throughout his realm.
Also influenced by English half uncial s, the script Alcuin learned in his youth at the cathedral school in York, Carolingian minuscule quickly became the dominant book hand in Europe, where it was used through the 11th century and adopted in England following the Norman Conquest, replacing Insular and Anglo-Saxon scripts. Although carousels are bulky, they can also be used to store slides when not in use. To see examples, try a keywords search on the phrase "slide carousel" in Google Images.
Compare with magazine. The term is derived from its resemblance to hand-knotted carpets imported from the East. Examples can be seen here in the Book of Kells and here in the Lindisfarne Gospels , an illuminated masterpiece produced in Northumbria at the end of the 7th century, currently in the custody of the British Library.
In modern libraries , a small room or alcove in the stacks designed for individual study click here and here to see examples. Also refers to a free-standing desk or two desks face-to-face with low partitions at back and sides to provide some degree of privacy, with a shelf across the back facing the reader. Newer study carrels have built-in illumination and may be wired to provide network access for patron s using laptop s.
The fashion of exchanging cartes-de-visite like calling cards and collecting them in album s spread throughout the world in the second half of the 19th century. Portraits of celebrity sitters were particularly prized see this one of Abraham Lincoln taken in Cartes-de-visite can be dated by thickness early cards were thin , corner shape square or rounded , image size small at first , border style, and studio props and background.
By the early 20th century, the format had been superseded by the larger cabinet card s. Here is a selection of portrait cards of 19th-century actors and actresses from the Digital Collections of the University of Washington Libraries. Click here to learn more about the history of the carte-de-visite, courtesy of The American Museum of Photography. Also spelled carte de visite. See also : visiting card. Also, the branch of bibliography pertaining to cartographic materials and mapping. For an online example, see Cartobibliography of Maps of the Isle of Man.
The Sir George Fordham Award for Cartobibliography is given every three years by the Royal Geographical Society for distinguished contributions to the field. An area proportional to APT map is a cartogram on which surface extent area is relative to the amount of map data for a feature e.
Click here to see a world map based on estimated number of Internet users in the year from An Atlas of Cyberspaces and here to see maps of the United States based on the number of votes cast in the presidential election of Also refers to a small diagram included on the face of a map for the display of statistical data. See also : schematic map. The category includes two- and three-dimensional map s and plan s; nautical , aeronautical , and celestial chart s; atlas es; globe s and planetaria; block diagram s, section s, and profile s; view s; remote sensing image s including aerial photograph s with cartographic purpose ; cartogram s; etc.
Most cartographic materials are visual representations, but spatial data set s are a notable exception. In the bibliographic record representing a cartographic item , the characteristic s of the material are described in the material specific details area MSD. Broadly speaking, the term includes all the steps required to produce a map planning, aerial photograph y, field survey s, photogrammetry , editing, color separation, and printing , but mapmakers often apply the term only to map-finishing operations.
Click here to learn about the process of making a topographic map , courtesy of the U. Geological Survey. Automated cartography is the production of maps and charts with the aid of digital technology, not to be confused with geographic information systems GIS. A person who makes or produces maps is a cartographer. Synonymous with mapmaking. The same material was used in ancient Egypt for making mummy cases see this example. Usually published in a newspaper or magazine , cartoons may be caption ed or contain monologue or dialogue in balloon s.
Political cartoon s usually appear on or near the editorial page of a newspaper.
Successful cartoonists are often syndicate d. For examples, see Herblock's History and Oliphant's Anthem , two online exhibition s of political cartoons provided by the Library of Congress. A searchable database of New Yorker cartoons is available at Cartoonbank.
See also : comic book , lampoon , and manga. On older maps, the cartouche often includes decorative elements, ranging from simple ornamentation to elaborate embellishment.
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The presence of a coat of arms signified land ownership. Click here to see an example on a 17th-century map of Pennsylvania Library of Congress. Click here to see a cartouche in the form of a medallion , and here and here to see draped examples University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. Some decorative cartouches are very elaborate University of Southern Maine.
To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term s "cartouche and map" in Google Images. Also found on engraving s and older bookbinding s. A cartridge is distinct from a container in being integral to, rather than separable from, the item. Cartridges may be constructed with the recording medium in a continuous loop. Some libraries use cartridge microfilm in which the ends of a length of film are permanently attached to two take-up reel s for playback and rewind ing.
Compare with cassette. Also refers to the register in which they were listed, synonymous in the latter sense with chartulary. The appearance of design elements logo s, headers, footers, font s, link s, margins, etc. By governing style externally, CSS enables the site developer to give the page s of a Web site a uniform look and alter style of presentation as desired without having to rewrite source code. The edition binder submits a specimen case to the publisher for approval showing the size, boards, covering, lettering , and squares.
The process of attaching the case to the text block by pasting down the endpaper s is called casing-in see this result. See also : case binding and recased. The spine of the case is not adhered to the binding edge of the section s in case binding. When the method was first introduced in , plain cloth was used to cover the boards, but by the s a variety of finishes had been developed and embossing was often added.
Click here to see all the parts of a typical case-bound book labeled. See also : recased. Legal casebooks are typically plainly bound see this example. Compare with case study. Common in the midth century, case mounting was used to protect daguerreotype s example , ambrotype s example , tintype s, and porcelain photographs. Some cases are oval example or octagonal in shape example , but most are square or rectangular.
Gilding and fine fabric linings were often used to create a luxurious effect example. Photograph s made by later processes may be mounted in cases that once held images of an earlier type. Cased photographs are often in need of repair when acquired by a library click here to see the conservation process.
Compare with card-mounted photograph. A widely used example is Elmer's Glue-All. On the Internet , Web addresses URL s are case-sensitive, but e-mail address es and filename s usually are not. A case study may be published as an article in a journal , as an essay in a collection , or in book form. In bibliographic database s that permit the user to limit retrieval by type of publication, case studies may be one of the option s example : PsycINFO.
Synonymous with case report. Compare with casebook. Today, computer software is available for recording such transactions electronically. In libraries , a petty cash book may be used to record monies received in payment of fines , etc. Also spelled cashbook. Compare with account book. Payment which must be received at the time the goods are delivered.
The most common varieties used in libraries are audiocassette s, videocassette s, and cassette microfilm. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with cartridge , but some cartridges have only one hub. See also : compact cassette. Some cassette singles contain one song on each side, similar to 45 rpm phonograph record single s; others have the same two songs on both sides.
Abbreviated cassingle. In an original cast album , the vocals are sung by the cast of the initial production, usually a Broadway or London premiere. To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Produced since the s, such works may be difficult to distinguish from embossed print s. Click here to see an example, courtesy of the Society of Scottish Artists. In most modern libraries , the card catalog has been converted to machine-readable bibliographic record s and is available online. The purpose of a library catalog, as stated by Charles C. Wynar in Introduction to Cataloging and Classification 8th ed.
To enable a person to find any work, whether issue d in print or in nonprint format , when one of the following is known: a. The author b. The title c. The subject 2. To show what the library has d. By a given author e. On a given and related subjects f. In a given kind of literature 3. To assist in the choice of a work g. As to the bibliographic edition h. As to its character literary or topic al The preparation of entries for a library catalog called cataloging is performed by a librarian known as a cataloger.
Billboard magazine defines a catalog album as one over eighteen months old, which has fallen below position on its Billboard list of highest selling music albums. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the Gustavus Adolphus College Library. With the conversion of paper record s to machine-readable format and the use of online catalog s, catalog cards have fallen into disuse.
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British spelling is catalogue card. See also : extension card. Synonymous with cataloging code. Also refers to the librarian responsible for supervising a cataloging department. British spelling is cataloguer. Synonymous with catalog librarian. Click here to learn more about Cataloger's Desktop.
In libraries , this usually includes bibliographic description , subject analysis , assignment of classification notation , and activities involved in physically preparing the item for the shelf , tasks usually performed under the supervision of a librarian trained as a cataloger. British spelling is cataloguing. See also : cataloging agency , Cataloging and Classification Section , cataloging-in-publication , centralized cataloging , cooperative cataloging , copy cataloging , descriptive cataloging , encoding level , and recataloging.
In the United States, the leading source of cataloging data is the Library of Congress. Click here to connect to the CCS homepage. Cataloging Distribution Service CDS An agency within the Library of Congress that develops and markets, on a cost-recovery basis, bibliographic products and services that provide access to its resources for libraries in the United States, the American public, and the international information community.
To accomplish its goal s, the CDS employs librarian s, product developers, systems analysts, programmers, operators, marketers, shippers, customer service representatives, accountants, and production staff. Click here to connect to the CDS homepage. The Library of Congress distributes CIP records to large libraries, bibliographic utilities , and book vendors on a weekly basis to facilitate book processing. If incomplete, the initial record may be amended by the Library of Congress after the U. Copyright Office receives the deposit copy of the published work.
British spelling is cataloguing-in-publication. If English is not the language of the cataloging agency, the field may also contain information about the language in which the item is cataloged. Catalog of U. Government Publications CGP The primary index to publication s of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States, published by the U.
In the online catalog , the screen display that represents most fully a specific edition of a work , including element s of description and access point s taken from the complete machine-readable bibliographic record , as well as information about the holdings of the local library or library system copies , location , call number, status , etc. British spelling is catalogue record. Compare with entry. As a general rule, each entry in the list includes date of production, size, condition, provenance , location, exhibition history, and other important information about the work.
Those printed on the verso indicate the first letters of the first word on the page; those on the recto , the first letters of the last word on the page. In some work s, the letters appear in two groups separated by a hyphen , representing the first and last words on the page. Compare with catchword. Synonymous with guideword. Compare in this sense with catch letters. Synonymous with catch title. Categories for the Description of Works of Art CDWA A specification developed by the Art Information Task Force AITF defining metadata elements to be used in describing work s of art and architecture and surrogate s of such works example : digital image s , from an art-historical perspective.
Click here to learn more about CDWA. To see examples of the style, try a search on the keyword "cathedral" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Catholic Library Association CLA Established in , CLA has a membership of librarian s, teachers, and bookseller s involved with Catholic libraries and the writing, publication , and distribution of Catholic literature. CATV See : cable television. Compare with task force. CAV An abbreviation of c onstant a ngular v elocity , a disc recording technology in which the disc is spun at constant speed in playback regardless of whether the heads are reading the inside or the outside.
Because the track s on the inside are shorter than those on the perimeter, the constant speed of rotation means that when the heads are reading the outside tracks, they traverse a much longer linear path than when the inside is read, so linear velocity does not remain constant. The main advantage of CAV is that it allows special playback features such as freeze frame , step frame, slow motion , and reverse not possible in CLV constant linear velocity format ; however, CAV has significantly less data storage capacity than CLV. Caxton Club Named after William Caxton , England's first printer , the Caxton Club was founded in by fifteen Chicago bibliophile s collector s, publisher s, book designers, and librarian s who wished to advance the publication of fine book s in the spirit of the prevailing Arts and Crafts Movement.
The Club has as its primary objective the publication of book s of quality, in content and design. Its founders also established club rooms in which to meet and sponsor exhibition s, and a library of reference material about books. Click here to connect to the homepage of the Caxton Club. Caxton, William c. He brought the first printing press to England and installed it in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey, issuing the first dated book known to have been printed in England probably his The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers in By the time he died in , his press had issued approximately work s, including folio edition s of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales and Mallory's Morte D'Arthur , which he sold to English reader s in bound copies.
He was an expert editor and translated into English many of the works he printed. CC See : c losed c aption and c ommon c arrier. CCD See : c ollaborative c ollection d evelopment. CCO See : cultural object.
CCTV See : c losed c ircuit t ele v ision. CD See : c ompact d isc. CD-I C ompact D isc- I nteractive, a software and hardware standard developed in by Philips International and Sony Corporation for storing video , audio , and binary data on compact optical disk. A special stand-alone player that includes a CPU , memory , and an integrated operating system is required, capable of connecting to a television receiver for display ing images and sound or to a stereo system for sound only.
CD-I technology allows the user to interact with the system by positioning a cursor to select option s via a remote control device. Not widely accepted, CD-I application s are used in education, recreation music and computer game s , etc. Sometimes referred to as the Green Book standard. Also spelled CD-i. CDP See : c ollection d evelopment p olicy. CD-R C ompact D isc- R ecordable, a blank compact disc invented by Philips and Sony, on which the user can permanently record audio and other digital data , using a CD burner, and then read the content repeatedly.
The entire disc does not have to be written in the same session but once recorded, the information is not erasable. Most CD-R discs have a capacity of minutes. Compare with CD-RW. Stamped by the producer on the metallic surface, the data encoded on a CD-ROM can be search ed and displayed on a computer screen but not changed or erased.
CD-ROM changer A computer hardware device designed to store a small number of CD-ROM s or disc modules, with carousels and robot arms to move one disc at a time to an optical or magnetic reader and back to its storage location. Colloquially known as a jukebox. Collective, black currant- and fig-scented reed diffusers from Dilo, and earth-hued ceramics by Clay Kitchen Studio. Looking to spruce up for spring? Options abound. There are ankle booties in moody hues, flirty crisscross-strap kitten heels and chunky two-tone pumps, all with cheeky names like Pink Parfait and French Martini.
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