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Sign up and receive and coupons and promotional discounts on cigarettes and cigars. This flavor closely resemble the taste of traditional cigarettes such as Salem, Menthol, Basic Menthol, Kool, Newport and Marlboro cigarettes. Red kamel cigarettes buy Discount cigarettes - blogspot. Sign up to win Free Cigarettes and 54s and Menthol Cigarette. All estimates were obtained with post-stratification weights. In regressions, the dependent variable is price paid per pack, and the variable of interest is whether using coupons, rebates, buy-one-get-one-free, two-for-one or any other special promotions for cigarettes in the most recent purchase.

Control variables include demographic characteristics race, age, gender, education, marital status and employment status , state dummy variables, whether the respondent is a daily smoker, time to first cigarette since wake up, and all other price-minimisation behaviours ie, purchase of generic brands, purchase of cartons, purchase on Indian reservation or purchase through the internet. Percentage of discount rendered is obtained by dividing average price per pack with price reduction associated with coupons and other price-related discounts. Therefore, industry's promotional allowances directly paid to retailers or wholesalers are not included.

The average price reductions of coupons or other discounts offered by PM or RJR were statistically significant and similar in magnitude, 29 cents per pack. That of Newport Lorillard cigarettes was 24 cents per pack and was marginally significant. The prevalence of using coupons or other price-related discounts varied from Thus, about one of three Camel smokers used these strategies during the last time they bought their cigarettes, compared with about one of four Marlboro smokers and about one of eight Newport smokers.

The per cent price reductions due to use of coupons or discounts ranged from 1. Also, those who smoked Salem and used coupons or other price-related discounts saved 80 cents the last time they purchased it. N represents unweighted sample size.

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Control variables include demographic characteristics race, age, gender, education, marital status and employment status , state dummy variables, whether the respondent is a daily smoker, time to first cigarette since wake up and all other price-minimisation behaviours ie, purchase of generic brands, purchase of cartons, purchase on Indian reservation or purchase through the internet. Coupons or other price-related discounts from other companies did not result in statistically significant price per pack reductions for their consumers.

These numbers imply that the coupon discounts from the three leading cigarette companies about 24—29 cents offset As a result, these offers brought actual average prices down for users of specific brands, while the price reductions associated with these discounts were likely to increase the sales in these companies. Although it is true that statistically significant or marginally statistically significant price reductions were observed for the three leading US cigarette companies, significant reductions are brand specific.

Thus, PM, RJR and Lorillard have concentrated their efforts to provide price discounts mainly to their best selling brands.

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This might be one of the reasons that a previous analysis failed to identify significant price reductions associated with promotional offers. This study has some limitations. First, the study design is cross-sectional. However, the study covers the entire USA, and there is a variety of prices as a function of brand smoked and other factors. However, when we excluded Indian reservation and internet purchases from the analysis, the adjusted average prices and price discounts associated with coupons did not change much. In the full sample, total missing responses for this question were However, sensitivity analysis has shown that dropping these observations does not significantly affect the results.

We compared smoking and social-demographic characteristics between individuals with incomplete information and individuals with complete information and have found little differences at the mean level.

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Fourth, as noted above, the — NATS does not collect information for all price minimisation strategies, including cigarette purchases from states with lower price. Although the cross-border purchase is an issue in tobacco control, the prevalence of this behaviour was quite low in the USA compared with other forms of price minimisation strategies. In order to account for unmeasured price minimisation strategies, we controlled for smoking intensity and level of nicotine addiction in the analysis since the literature suggests that these are important risk factors of using any price minimisation strategies.

Additionally, the paid prices were determined by using self-reported information from the smoker, which may be subject to recall bias. However, existing evidence indicates that the average of self-reported prices per pack in the — NATS was very consistent with the corresponding national average price reported in the Tax Burden on Tobacco TBOT. In addition to cigarette companies directly influencing cigarette retail prices by providing coupons or other price-related discounts, companies may also indirectly affect cigarette prices by offering discounts to retailers and by promoting cigars or pipe tobacco that can be used in roll-your-own cigarettes.

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Our results show that the three leading cigarette companies in the USA continue to offer price discounts to smokers of their brands, although these promotions appear to be concentrated among their top-selling cigarette brands. Cigarette companies can be strategic when offering price discounts. For example, existing literature suggests that young adults, women and heavy smokers are more frequently targeted for these promotions.

The length duration of smoking and the amount of cigarettes smoked per day on days the person smoked is strongly associated with a higher likelihood of developing and dying from a smoking-related disease, such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart attacks. Contributors: All the authors meet the authorship criteria: RSC participated in the conception and design of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and final approval of the version to be published. XW participated in the conception and analysis and interpretation of data; revising it critically for important intellectual content and final approval of the version to be published.

XX participated in the conception and design of data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and final approval of the version to be published.

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Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. Competing interests: None. Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Data sharing statement: No additional data are available. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMJ Open.

Published online Jun 4. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to Dr Ralph S Caraballo; vog.


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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Author's manuscript. Abstract Objectives The raising unit price of cigarette has been shown to be one of the most effective ways of reducing cigarette consumption and increasing rates of successful quitting. You mean avoiding getting the email? I think it's good you get an email when someone tries to hack your system.

Maurice Makaay. There's no hacking involved here. This is just a user signup gone wrong. Hacking or better: cracking is when people are trying to maliciously break into your system. This is just somebody doing automatic signups with weird long usernames that don't make sense. Normally, Phorum would warn that the username is a duplicate. Therefore this db warning could point at a minor bug in Phorum, not detecting the duplicate username correctly. It could also point at two signup scripts that ran at the exact same time, trying to create the exact same user.

Phorum does not implement any locking scheme to handle concurrent signup requests like that gracefully. The chances that two humans signup at the exact same moment with the exact same username are pretty close to zero. This error is caught by the code and reported to the admin.

This is the expected program flow and it is not prone to hacking.