Faatima evans extreme couponing

Add a comment Don't give up on your garden yet. Fall is coming quicker than you think! You can easily extend your gardening season and grow more veggies longer when you use a hoop house. Profile photo. Looks like you've reached the end. Unable to load more. Wait while more posts are being loaded. Aug 18, Faatima Evans - Faatima In the living room of her northwest Detroit home, Evans' daughter, Kela, Faatima Evans - YouTube. SubscribeSubscribedUnsubscribe Duration: 6 minutes, 47 seconds.

Sign Up. Faatima Evans Huffington Post. She has been couponing since October and Faatima Evans LinkedIn. The purpose of couponing is to save money, but if you end up trying to take advantage of every deal -- whether it's a good deal or not -- are you View Faatima Evans' professional profile on LinkedIn.

LinkedIn is the world's largest business network, helping professionals like Faatima Evans discover inside Family of mentally-challenged Detroit man seeks help to keep him Mar 3, Faatima Evans on Pinterest. These results remained significant after controlling for contextual variables. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non- elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness. Plasma rich in growth factors PRGF as a treatment for high ankle sprain in elite athletes: a randomized control trial.

Syndesmotic sprains are uncommon injuries that require prolonged recovery. The influence of ultrasound-guided injections of platelet-rich plasma PRP into the injured antero-inferior tibio-fibular ligaments AITFL in athletes on return to play RTP and dynamic stability was studied. All patients followed an identical rehabilitation protocol and RTP criteria. Patients were prospectively evaluated for clinical ability to return to full activity and residual pain. Dynamic ultrasound examinations were performed at initial examination and at 6 weeks post-injury to demonstrate re-stabilization of the syndesmosis joint and correlation with subjective outcome.

All patients presented with a tear to the AITFL with dynamic syndesmosis instability in dorsiflexion-external rotation, and larger neutral tibia-fibula distance on ultrasound. Early diagnosis and treatment lead to shorter RTP, with Significantly less residual pain upon return to activity was found in the PRP group; five patients One patient in the control group had continuous pain and disability and subsequently underwent syndesmosis reconstruction.

Athletes suffering from high ankle sprains benefit from ultrasound-guided PRP injections with a shorter RTP, re-stabilization of the syndesmosis joint and less long-term residual pain. Working memory, an executive function, plays an important role in frontal lobe- controlled behaviors, such as motivation, planning, decision making, and social interaction, and is a strong predictor of academic success in school children. Memory impairments have been identified in HIV -I children, particularly in visuospatial processing.

However, this does not mean that the etiology of the working memory deficits is the same in the two groups, as these groups showed important differences when compared to the control group. In comparison to the controls , the HIV -I group experienced difficulties with processing tasks irrespective of whether they drew on a verbal or visuospatial modality.

This appears to stem from a generalized executive function deficit that also interferes with working memory.

In the HIV -EU group, difficulties occurred with verbally based tasks, irrespective of whether they required storage or processing. For this group, the dual demands of complex processing and using a second language seem to result in demand exceeding capacity on verbal tasks. Both groups experienced the greatest difficulties with verbal processing tasks for these different reasons.

Thus, disruption of different cognitive abilities could result in similar working memory profiles, as evidenced in this. Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV -positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group.

Forty-nine HIV -infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Salivary catalase levels were 7.


Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3. HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the individuals' dynamics of perceived control and hedonic tone over time, with respect to the 4 performance states as conceptualized within the multiaction plan MAP model.

We expected to find idiosyncratic and differentiated trends over time in the scores of perceived control and hedonic…. Maxwell and P. Kenway, J. Fahey, D. Epstein, A. Koh, C. McCarthy, and F. Controlling coaching and athlete thriving in elite adolescent netballers: The buffering effect of athletes' mental toughness. The purposes of this study were to examine the association between controlling coach behaviours and athlete experiences of thriving and test the buffering effect of mental toughness on this relation. A cross-sectional survey. In total, female netballers aged 11 to 17 years Latent moderated structural models indicated that i controlling coach behaviours were inversely related with experiences of vitality and learning; ii mental toughness was positively associated with psychological experiences of both dimensions of thriving; and iii mental toughness moderated the effect of coach's controlling interpersonal style on learning but not vitality experiences, such that the effect was weaker for individuals who reported higher levels of mental toughness.

This study extends past work and theory to show that mental toughness may enable athletes to counteract the potentially deleterious effect of controlling coach interpersonal styles. This emergence was associated to the early viral set point, suggesting an involvement in early control , in spite of CD4 T cell susceptibility to HIV infection. These findings are. Quality control QC of germplasm identity and purity is a critical component of breeding and conservation activities.

SNP genotyping technologies and increased availability of markers provide the opportunity to employ genotyping as a low-cost and robust component of this QC. In the public sector available low-cost SNP QC genotyping methods have been developed from a very limited panel of markers of 1, to 1, markers without broad selection of the most informative SNPs. Selection of optimal SNPs and definition of appropriate germplasm sampling in addition to platform section impact on logistical and resource-use considerations for breeding and conservation applications when mainstreaming QC.

Two QC genotyping strategies were developed, the first is a "rapid QC", employing a small number of SNPs to identify potential mislabeling of seed packages or plots, the second is a "broad QC", employing a larger number of SNP, used to identify each germplasm entry and to measure heterogeneity. The optimal marker selection strategies combined the selection of markers with high minor allele frequency, sampling of clustered SNP in proportion to marker cluster distance and selecting markers that maintain a uniform genomic distribution.

The rapid and broad QC SNP panels selected using this approach were further validated using blind test assessments of related re-generation samples. The influence of sampling within each line was evaluated. These results provide a framework for the establishment of QC genotyping. A comparison of financial and time costs for use of these approaches across different platforms is.

Viral infections, including HIV , trigger the production of type I interferons IFNs , which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. Highly active anti-retroviral treatment reduces viral load and increases life expectancy in HIV positive patients; however, it fails to fully eliminate latent HIV reservoirs.

In addition, we discuss the relevance of type I IFN treatment in the context of HIV latency reversal, novel therapeutic intervention strategies and the potential for full HIV clearance. It has affected nearly 60 million people since the detection of the disease in to date. Stability analysis is carried out. And the disease free equilibrium of the basic model was found to be locally asymptotically stable whenever the threshold parameter RO value is less than one, and unstable otherwise.

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The model is extended by introducing two optimal control strategies namely, CD4 counts and treatment for the infective using optimal control theory. Numerical simulation was carried out in order to illustrate the analytic results. Federal Register , , , , HIV and child mental health: a case- control study in Rwanda.

A case- control design assessed mental health, risk, and protective factors among children aged 10 to 17 years at different levels of HIV exposure. HIV -affected and HIV -positive children demonstrated higher levels of depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and functional impairment compared with HIV -unaffected children. These results remained significant after controlling for contextual variables, there were no significant differences on mental health outcomes groups, reflecting a potential explanatory role of factors such as daily hardships, caregiver depression, and HIV -related stigma [corrected].

The mental health of HIV -affected children requires policy and programmatic responses comparable to HIV -positive children. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. Shianna, Kevin V. A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant CNV in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors KIR associates with HIV -1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry.

Self-regulation and performance level of elite and non- elite youth soccer players. In learning and development, self-regulation can be described as the extent to which individuals are metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviourally proactive participants in their learning process Zimmerman, , The players completed a questionnaire that assessed planning, self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, effort, and self-efficacy. A logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age to determine which self-regulatory aspects were associated with players' performance level elite vs.

High scores on reflection and effort were associated with a higher level of performance. Findings suggest that elite players may be more aware of their strong and weak points as well as better able to translate this awareness into action. In addition, elite players appear to be more willing to invest effort into practice and competition. It is suggested that these better developed self-regulatory skills may translate into a more effective learning environment and ultimately result in an increased capacity for performance in elite players relative to their non- elite peers.

Moore, Raeanne C. Relationships between how the different variables related to SRSA were explored. Positive psychological traits such as resilience, optimism, and sense of personal mastery have stronger relationship with SRSA than duration or severity of HIV disease. Thymic HIV -2 infection uncovers posttranscriptional control of viral replication in human thymocytes. This equilibrium is characterized by low to undetectable levels of viremia throughout the disease course, despite the establishment of disseminated HIV -2 reservoirs at levels comparable to those observed in untreated HIV -1 infection.

Although the clinical spectrum is similar in the two infections, HIV -2 infection is associated with a much lower rate of CD4 T-cell decline and has a limited impact on the mortality of infected adults. Here we investigated HIV -2 infection of the human thymus, the primary organ for T-cell production. Nevertheless, thymocytes featured reduced levels of intracellular Gag viral protein, irrespective of HIV -2 coreceptor tropism and cell differentiation stage, in agreement with the low viral load in culture supernatants.

Our data show that HIV -2 is able to infect the human thymus, but the HIV -2 replication cycle in thymocytes is impaired, providing a new model to identify therapeutic targets for viral replication control. HIV infected individuals feature low to undetectable plasma viral loads, in spite of the numbers of circulating infected T cells being similar to those found in patients infected with HIV We assessed, for the first time, the direct impact of HIV -2 infection on the human thymus.

We show that HIV -2 is able to infect the thymus. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players. The project aimed to implement neuromuscular training during a full soccer and handball league season and to experimentally analyze the neuromuscular adaptation mechanisms elicited by this training during a standardized sidecutting maneuver known to be associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament ACL injury. The players were tested before and after 1 season without implementation of the prophylactic training and subsequently before and after a full season with the implementation of prophylactic training.

The subjects participated in a specific neuromuscular training program previously shown to reduce non-contact ACL injury. Neuromuscular activity at the knee joint, joint angles at the hip and knee, and ground reaction forces were recorded during a sidecutting maneuver. Neuromuscular activity in the prelanding phase was obtained 10 and 50 ms before foot strike on a force plate and at 10 and 50 ms after foot strike on a force plate.

Data collection was conducted from January to May through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. A case- control study of factors associated with HIV infection among black women.

A case- control study conducted in August in North Carolina. Cases were year-old women with HIV infections diagnosed from Five focus group discussions were also conducted with women not participating in the case- control study. Multivariate analyses of 31 cases and controls showed that HIV -positive women were more likely to receive public assistance [adjusted odds ratio aOR 7. Focus group participants indicated that financial and social demands created competing challenges for making HIV prevention a priority. Inadequate communication between black women and their sexual partners may create barriers to sexual and behavioral risk reduction.

A multidimensional approach that addresses both biological factors such as herpes infection and socioeconomic factors may be needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population. HIV epidemic control -a model for optimal allocation of prevention and treatment resources. With 33 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus HIV worldwide and 2. However, available resources for HIV control are limited and must be used efficiently to minimize the future spread of the epidemic.

We develop a model to determine the appropriate resource allocation between expanded HIV prevention and treatment services. We create an epidemic model that incorporates multiple key populations with different transmission modes, as well as production functions that relate investment in prevention and treatment programs to changes in transmission and treatment rates. The goal is to allocate resources to minimize R 0, the reproductive rate of infection.

We first develop a single-population model and determine the optimal resource allocation between HIV prevention and treatment. We extend the analysis to multiple independent populations, with resource allocation among interventions and populations. We then include the effects of HIV transmission between key populations. As part of these applications, we develop a novel approach for estimating empirical HIV program production functions.

Our study provides insights into the important question of resource allocation for a country's optimal response to its HIV epidemic and provides a practical approach for decision makers. Better decisions about allocating limited HIV resources can improve response to the epidemic and increase access to HIV prevention and treatment services for millions of people worldwide. It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart.

The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Pathological late enhancement was detected in 1 athlete. No correlations were found for left ventricular and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitive troponin was negative in all subjects.

Based on our results, chronic right ventricular damage in elite endurance master athletes with lifelong high training volumes seems to be unlikely. Thus, the hypothesis of an exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has to be questioned. Internal medicine residents are the front-line medical providers for large groups of patients. We evaluated the knowledge of internal medicine residents about HIV testing guidelines and examined adherence to universal HIV testing in an outpatient setting.

A cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents at four residency programs in Chicago was conducted from January to March Aggregate data on HIV screening were collected from 35 federally qualified community health centers in the Chicago area after inclusion of an HIV testing best practice alert in patients' electronic medical records. The most frequently reported barriers to HIV testing were deferral because of urgent care issues, lack of time, and the perception that patients were uncomfortable discussing HIV testing.

From July to February , the average HIV testing adherence rate in the 35 health centers was More effort is needed to change HIV testing practices among internal medicine residents so that they will adopt this approach in their future clinical practice. Improving knowledge about HIV testing and addressing other HIV testing barriers are essential for such a successful change. No association between static and dynamic postural control and ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players: a prospective study of players.

Research on balance measures as potential risk factors for ACL injury is limited.

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To assess whether postural control was associated with an increased risk for ACL injuries in female elite handball and football players. Premier league players were tested in the preseason and followed prospectively for ACL injury risk from through At baseline, we recorded player demographics, playing experience, ACL and ankle injury history.

We measured centre of pressure velocity in single-leg stabilisation tests and reach distances in the Star Excursion Balance Test. To examine the stability of postural control measures over time, we examined their short-term and long-term reproducibility. We generated logistic regression models, 1 for each of the proposed risk factors. A total of 55 6. When comparing normalised balance measures between injured and uninjured players in univariate analyses, none of the variables were statistically associated with ACL injury risk.

Short-term and long-term reproducibility of the selected variables was poor. None of postural control measures examined were associated with increased ACL injury risk among female elite handball and football players. Hence, as measured in the current investigation, the variables included cannot be used to predict ACL injury risk. Hammett, Theodore M. Evaluation employed serial cross-sectional surveys of IDUs 26 waves from to , including interviews and HIV testing.

The rebound in incidence among new injectors may reflect sexual transmission. BED-based estimates may overstate incidence because of false-recent results in patients with long-term infection or on ARV treatment but adjustment for false-recent results and survey responses on duration of infection generally confirm BED-based incidence trends.

Combined trends from the two estimation methods show sharp declines in incidence to low levels. The significant downward trends in all primary outcome measures indicate that the Cross-Border interventions played an important role in bringing HIV epidemics among IDUs under control. During the last 50 years, private "feeder" schools in Japan came to dominate entry into elite colleges.

Intense organizational competition shaped the organizational environment and changed the pathways available to social elites. Compared to Japan, elite private feeders in the US have failed to dominate pathways into elite colleges. HIV avidity index performance using a modified fourth-generation immunoassay to detect recent HIV infections. Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index AI for discriminating for recent HIV infections.

Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline PBS and the other with 1 M guanidine. HIV subtype had no impact on AI misclassifications. All individuals in group A reached the AI threshold of 0. Mental health treatment patterns in perinatally HIV -infected youth and controls. Youths perinatally infected with HIV often receive psychotropic medication and behavioral treatment for emotional and behavioral symptoms. We describe patterns of intervention for HIV -positive youth and youth in a control group in the United States.

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Three hundred nineteen HIV -positive youth and controls , aged 6 to 17 years, enrolled in the International Maternal Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials , a prospective, 2-year observational study of psychiatric symptoms. One hundred seventy-four youth in the control group were perinatally exposed to HIV , and 82 youth were uninfected children living in households with HIV -positive members. Youth and their primary caregivers completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-referenced symptom-rating scales.

Children's medication and behavioral psychiatric intervention histories were collected at entry. We evaluated the association of past or current psychiatric treatment with HIV status, baseline symptoms, and impairment by using multiple logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Caregiver-reported symptoms or impairment were associated with higher odds of intervention than reports by children alone.

HIV -positive children are more likely to receive mental health interventions than control -group children. From the publication of the first AIDS issue onwards, major advances have been made in the field of innate immunity during HIV infection. Innate immunity can be defined as the first and unspecific lines of defense constitutively present and ready to be mobilized upon infection. Although a large body of literature adamantly highlights that innate immunity is a critical weapon of defense against HIV and its simian parents simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV , innate immunity is still underexplored.

Focusing on innate immunity may open new paths for the development of innovative therapeutics and vaccine strategies against HIV. Understanding innate immunity may shed light on the natural protection occurring in rare HIV infected individuals who control their infection.

This review focuses on innate mechanisms sensing HIV -1 entry and controlling HIV -1 infection, as well as promoting inflammation and shaping adaptive immunity. The individuals with HIV -1 mutations associated with at least one of the HLA alleles in the deleterious HLA haplotype had higher plasma viral loads and lower CD4 counts than those of individuals without the mutations, suggesting that viral adaptation and escape from HLA-mediated immune control occurred. The present study identifies a protective allele and a deleterious haplotype for HIV Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field.

Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub- elite youth soccer players aged years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players mean age ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub- elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition p control and cognitive flexibility performance. In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control , cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub- elite counterparts.

However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub- elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal. Huijgen, Barbara C. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub- elite youth soccer players aged 13—17 years. This highlights the. Baltimore, Maryland ranks among U. Nine of these epitopes were conserved among HIV -1 subtype B-infected individuals, whereas three out of four nonconserved epitopes were cross-recognized by the specific T cells.

These findings indicate that these 12 epitopes are strong candidates for antigens for an AIDS vaccine. Educational effectiveness of an HIV pretest video for adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a youth-friendly HIV video with in-person counseling in conveying HIV knowledge and obtaining consent for HIV testing among adolescent patients of an urban emergency department.

A 2-armed, randomized controlled trial was conducted on a convenience sample of stable, sexually active people aged 15 to 21 years in an urban emergency department. Participants in both the in-person counseling group and the video intervention group completed preintervention and postintervention HIV knowledge measures. HIV knowledge was the primary outcome measure, and consent for HIV testing was the secondary outcome. Characteristics associated with voluntary HIV testing were identified.

Of eligible people, agreed to participate. There was no difference in preintervention HIV knowledge scores between groups. Mean postintervention knowledge scores differed significantly between the video METHODS: A 2-armed, randomized controlled trial was conducted on a convenience sample of stable, sexually active people aged 15 to 21 years in an urban emergency department. Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy cART to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV -1 —infected infants controls HIV -1 replication and reduces mortality.

Plasma viremia lower limit of detection, HIV -1—specific immune responses, and the persistence of cells carrying replication-competent virus were quantified during long-term effective combination antiretroviral therapy cART in 4 perinatally HIV -1—infected youth who received treatment early the ET group and 4 who received treatment late the LT group. Replication-competent virus was recovered from all LT youth but only 1 ET youth. Initiation of early effective cART during infancy significantly limits circulating levels of proviral and replication-competent HIV -1 and promotes continuous decay of viral reservoirs.

Roland, Michelle E. Objectives To evaluate the impact of liver and kidney transplantation on survival in HIV -positive transplant candidates and compare outcomes between HIV -positive and negative recipients. Design Observational cohort of HIV -positive transplant candidates and recipients and secondary analysis comparing study recipients to HIV -negative national registry controls. Methods We fit proportional hazards models to assess transplantation impact on mortality among recipients and candidates. We compared time to graft failure and death with HIV -negative controls in unmatched, demographic-matched, and risk-adjusted models.

Results There were 17 Transplantation was associated with survival benefit for HIV -infected liver recipients with model for end-stage liver disease MELD greater than or equal 15 [hazard ratio HR 0. All models demonstrated a higher relative hazard of graft loss or death in HIV -positive liver recipients; the absolute difference in the proportion of deaths was 6.

Conclusion Kidney transplantation should be standard of care for well managed HIV -positive patients.

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Liver transplant in candidates with high MELD confers survival benefit; transplant is a viable option in selected candidates. The increased mortality risk compared with HIV -negative recipients was modest. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials. Natural Immunity to HIV : a delicate balance between strength and control. Understanding how the mucosal immune system in the human female reproductive tract might prevent or facilitate HIV infection has important implications for the design of effective interventions.

We and others have established cohorts of highly-exposed, HIV -seronegative individuals, such as HIV -uninfected commercial sex workers, who have remained HIV -negative after more than 5 years of active prostitution. Observations obtained in studies of such individuals, who represent a model of natural immunity to HIV , indicate that HIV resistance may be associated with the host's capacity to preserve systemic integrity by constraining immune activity and controlling inflammatory conditions at the mucosal point of entry. This likely necessitates the orchestration of balanced, first-line and adaptive immune responses.

The rsT allele was underrepresented in VCs This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. Most studies show that HIV -infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation.

A unique set of individuals, elite controllers , who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV -uninfected individuals. Conversely, exposure to maternal HIV in infants was shown to alter the gut microbiome, even in infants who escaped perinatal infection. Emerging research highlights the importance of the metabolomics and metaproteomics of the gut microbiome, which may have relevance for HIV remission and cure. Together, these studies illustrate the complexity of the relationship between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, and its systemic effects.

Understanding the association of HIV with the microbiome, metabolome, and metaproteome may lead to novel therapies to decrease inflammation and immune activation, and impact HIV reservoir size and vaccine responses. Further research in this area is important to inform HIV remission and cure treatments. Evaluating the impact of the HIV pandemic on measles control and elimination. To estimate the impact of the HIV pandemic on vaccine-acquired population immunity to measles virus because high levels of population immunity are required to eliminate transmission of measles virus in large geographical areas, and HIV infection can reduce the efficacy of measles vaccination.

A literature review was conducted to estimate key parameters relating to the potential impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology of measles in sub-Saharan Africa; parameters included the prevalence of HIV , child mortality, perinatal HIV transmission rates and protective immune responses to measles vaccination. These parameter estimates were incorporated into a simple model, applicable to regions that have a high prevalence of HIV , to estimate the potential impact of HIV infection on population immunity against measles.

The model suggests that the HIV pandemic should not introduce an insurmountable barrier to measles control and elimination, in part because higher rates of primary and secondary vaccine failure among HIV -infected children are counteracted by their high mortality rate. World News. Social Justice. Donald Trump. Queer Voices. Black Voices. Latino Voices. Asian Voices.

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